• FLORA & FAUNA

FAUNA

65 species of mammals have been registered, among these collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu), baird’s tapir (Tapirus bairdii) and species of cats of great importance such as jaguars, cougars, ocelots (Panthera onca, Puma concolor, Leopardus pardalis). There are also abundant and excellent habitats to support an important manatee population (Trichechus manatus). 55 species of reptiles and 34 of amphibians have also been reported. To date, there are reports of 149 species of insects, highlighting those that are indicators of the degree of conservation or habitat alteration.

FLORA

The Indio-Maíz Biological Reserve is a tropical rainforest, that is, one of the most diverse ecosystems. The flora is distributed in the upper layer of the forest, the middle layer and the understory. These are some species of a wide variety of plants that the reserve houses.

 

Common name: Mountain almendro.

Scientific name: Dipteryx panamensis.

Description: The almond tree can reach 60 m in height and 200 cm in diameter and is a key species for wildlife. Up to 60 species of birds, mammals and insects, like the Rainbow-billed toucan (Ramphastos sulfuratus), Montezuma Oropendola (Psarocolius montezuma), Colombian white-faced capuchin (Cebus Capucinus) and Black-eared opossum (Didelphis marsupialis), feed on its fruits and seeds. The green macaw also nests among its branches.

In the communities of the Rama and Kriol territory they make a traditional use of the species, more attached to the fruit and seed, such as the production of pozol, among other beverages and edible products.

Common name: Mountain almendro.

Scientific name: Dipteryx panamensis.

Description: The almond tree can reach 60 m in height and 200 cm in diameter and is a key species for wildlife. Up to 60 species of birds, mammals and insects, like the Rainbow-billed toucan (Ramphastos sulfuratus), Montezuma Oropendola (Psarocolius montezuma), Colombian white-faced capuchin (Cebus Capucinus) and Black-eared opossum (Didelphis marsupialis), feed on its fruits and seeds. The green macaw also nests among its branches.

In the communities of the Rama and Kriol territory they make a traditional use of the species, more attached to the fruit and seed, such as the production of pozol, among other beverages and edible products.

Common name: Weeping fig.

Scientific name: Ficus benjamina.

Description: A plant that begins its life on other trees from where it begins to extend its roots towards the forest floor. This plant can grow very large and strangle the tree on which it initially rested.

Common name: Weeping fig.

Scientific name: Ficus benjamina.

Description: A plant that begins its life on other trees from where it begins to extend its roots towards the forest floor. This plant can grow very large and strangle the tree on which it initially rested.

Common name: Monkey ladder.

Scientific name: Bauhinia ungulata.

Description: It is a shrub or tree that reaches a size of up to 8 m high. Simple deciduous leaves, ovate to elliptical, 5–12 cm long and 3–8 cm wide, lobed to about half their length, apex of lobes sharp to rounded, base cordate to rounded, upper surface glabrous, underside strigous or tomentulous, chartaceous to subcoriaceous, 7–9-nerves.

Common name: Monkey ladder.

Scientific name: Bauhinia ungulata.

Description: It is a shrub or tree that reaches a size of up to 8 m high. Simple deciduous leaves, ovate to elliptical, 5–12 cm long and 3–8 cm wide, lobed to about half their length, apex of lobes sharp to rounded, base cordate to rounded, upper surface glabrous, underside strigous or tomentulous, chartaceous to subcoriaceous, 7–9-nerves.

Common name: Walking palm.

Scientific name: Socratea exorrhiza.

Description: Socratea exorrhiza can measure 25 meters in height, with a diameter of 16 cm, although it is commonly 15-20 m in height with 12 cm in diameter. It has fulcreas or waders roots, which favor a rapid growth of the palm as well as mechanical support. Many species of epiphytes have been found growing on palm trees. The palm tree is pollinated by beetles, and various organisms feed on its seeds.

Common name: Walking palm.

Scientific name: Socratea exorrhiza.

Description: Socratea exorrhiza can measure 25 meters in height, with a diameter of 16 cm, although it is commonly 15-20 m in height with 12 cm in diameter. It has fulcreas or waders roots, which favor a rapid growth of the palm as well as mechanical support. Many species of epiphytes have been found growing on palm trees. The palm tree is pollinated by beetles, and various organisms feed on its seeds.

Common name: Hot lips.

Scientific name: Psychotria Elata.

Information: This plant can be seen in the lower part of the humid tropical forest. Its peculiar flower is actually a pair of leaves modified or specialized to attract its pollinators, butterflies and hummingbirds towards the true flowers.

Common name: Hot lips.

Scientific name: Psychotria Elata.

Information: This plant can be seen in the lower part of the humid tropical forest. Its peculiar flower is actually a pair of leaves modified or specialized to attract its pollinators, butterflies and hummingbirds towards the true flowers.

Common name: Rainbow heliconia.

Scientific name: Heliconia wagneriana.

Description: It reaches up to 2.5 m in height and usually has 4-5 linear-lanceolate leaves, with long petioles, pointed and more than 80 cm in length. Its bracts, directed upwards and in the shape of a very marked boat, form a compact unit of red-pink color, orange-red at the edges. They are bordered by a green, hard, plastic border.

Common name: Rainbow heliconia.

Scientific name: Heliconia wagneriana.

Description: It reaches up to 2.5 m in height and usually has 4-5 linear-lanceolate leaves, with long petioles, pointed and more than 80 cm in length. Its bracts, directed upwards and in the shape of a very marked boat, form a compact unit of red-pink color, orange-red at the edges. They are bordered by a green, hard, plastic border.

Common name: Bromelia.

Scientific name: Aechmea mariae-reginae.

Description: They are epiphytes, reaching a size of 40–100 cm tall in flower. Leaves 70–90 cm long; sheaths elliptical, up to 23 cm wide, entire proximally, dentate distally, densely brown-lepidote; Blades broadly triangular to ligulate, 8–15 cm wide, acute to shortly acuminate, apiculate, serrate, densely appressed-lepidote, adaxial trichomes frequently coalescing and exfoliating.

Common name: Bromelia.

Scientific name: Aechmea mariae-reginae.

Description: They are epiphytes, reaching a size of 40–100 cm tall in flower. Leaves 70–90 cm long; sheaths elliptical, up to 23 cm wide, entire proximally, dentate distally, densely brown-lepidote; Blades broadly triangular to ligulate, 8–15 cm wide, acute to shortly acuminate, apiculate, serrate, densely appressed-lepidote, adaxial trichomes frequently coalescing and exfoliating.

Common name: Glory bush.

Scientific name: Tibouchina urvilleana.

Description: Tibouchina urvilleana is a species of flowering plant in the Melastomataceae family, native to Brazil. Growing 3–6 m tall by 2–3 m wide, it is a sprawling evergreen shrub with longitudinally streaked dark green hairy leaves.

Common name: Glory bush.

Scientific name: Tibouchina urvilleana.

Description: Tibouchina urvilleana is a species of flowering plant in the Melastomataceae family, native to Brazil. Growing 3–6 m tall by 2–3 m wide, it is a sprawling evergreen shrub with longitudinally streaked dark green hairy leaves.

Common name: Chaconia

Scientific name: Warszewiczia coccinea.

Description: The chaconia or wild poinsettia is a small, evergreen ornamental tree, remarkable for its inflorescences with bright red bracts, along with small yellow petals. The anise-scented root exhibits aphrodisiac properties.

Common name: Chaconia

Scientific name: Warszewiczia coccinea.

Description: The chaconia or wild poinsettia is a small, evergreen ornamental tree, remarkable for its inflorescences with bright red bracts, along with small yellow petals. The anise-scented root exhibits aphrodisiac properties.

Cola-de-faisán-reserva-indio-maiz

Common name: Pheasant tail.

Scientific name: Anthurium schlechtendalii.

Description: Anthurium schlechtendalii is found from Mexico to Costa Rica. It is a large herbaceous plant with dark green leaves, it arises from a lot of white roots in the shape of a cord and its flower is a dark purple bract (spathe). It bears fruit and when ripe they look similar to small red berries. They tend to live in moist forests, rocky slopes, or outcrops of trees.

Cola-de-faisán-reserva-indio-maiz

Common name: Pheasant tail.

Scientific name: Anthurium schlechtendalii.

Description: Anthurium schlechtendalii is found from Mexico to Costa Rica. It is a large herbaceous plant with dark green leaves, it arises from a lot of white roots in the shape of a cord and its flower is a dark purple bract (spathe). It bears fruit and when ripe they look similar to small red berries. They tend to live in moist forests, rocky slopes, or outcrops of trees.